ONGOING DEVELOPMENTS

03/29/19  Electric-field controlled phase-change interface based on electrolytic conductive fluids within nano-amperage induced heat to mass flux for complete isenthalpic regime heat insulation, undergoing electrical skin effect in sub-spinodal region by special programmed waveform geometry, gave base for the isobaric confinement engineering of a Metastable Phase-Change Interface (MPCI), or the MPCI-film.

In pace with growing worldwide building masses, growth of electricity production has to make up for temperature drop over weekly new square-kilometres of façade structures and the accompanying volumes of thermal barriers. A sufficiently synchronized MPCI film, with high uniformity on metastable domains and convective heat rectification in control of electromagnetic fields, enables blocked heat transfer within complete isenthalpic circumstances, or at a near-zero propagation.

With filmwise condense barriers made up by electrolytic fluid films, leading to an evenly controllable vapor pressure and saturation temperature for non-equilibrium fluctuations in the corresponding frequency for high degree heat recovery over constant low diffusivity cavity interfaces, surpassing of the liquid spinodal for a non-disruptive metastability is enabled. As evaporative rates accommodate the reversible, exchange of latent heat energy between the molecules is recovered without propagation or at a sub-milliwatt coefficient. Intermolecular binding and kinetic energy movement are among the studied parameters within metastable domains where the surface tension is under control of the applied electric field and its waveform/amplitude.

The MPCI has involved theoretical analysis of metastability, surface tension, deformabilities, Hertz-Knudsen-Schrage models, Hamaker constants and Lifshitz theory, molecular collision frequency, heat transfer regimes of high/low diffusivity and imbalanced evaporative rates, supercritical and pseudocritical peaks of applicable fluid types, mass flux balances, imbalanced volumetric heat capacities induced by vapor/liquid interfaces over a multilayer barrier, interference of fluctuations of binodal/spinodal points, as well as the associated electro-technical sub-disciplines.

Where the electrostatics and induced fluctuations of surface tension break up intermolecular bonds, Van der Waals forces, it requires analysis in sub-nanosecond sequences for defining reactions and particle movements, while the pico- and femtosecond region may apply importance for gases of high thermal velocities. Thermocapillary convection and Marangoni-effects within thin liquid barriers are fields of high complexity due to the evaporative peak moments where the electrostatic drop of binding must accommodate with power supply at a sub-nano amperage with as least internal induction possible. This led research into new complexities for certain applications and fluid utilizations. However, the imbalanced volumetric heat capacities with thermal conductivities that secures heat dissipation factors far above the requirements maintain stable barriers over an unevenly surface without the influence of transverse instability in which temperature gradients are unable to form.

Among researched parameters, different waveform patterns and amplitude variations are theoretically studied for the disruption of electrostatic films with disjoining pressure in far microwave to low radio frequency, involving dynamics of saturation/boiling point, hereof pressure and temperature respectively, with imbalanced interfaces. The nano- and microscale contact line where liquid, vapor and solid phase meet across superheated and subcooled regimes represent much of the effort to find deterministic metastability points and frequencies that maintain near-zero propagation. Binodal points in this case has certainly less importance than the spinodal point of liquid phase in which the gas phase at certain temperature is the main source to maintain liquid phase metastability. Triple point problematics for certain applicable fluid types at a sub-atmospheric pressure confinement has represented more challenging theory analysis where the accompanying sublimation and decomposition effects may be impossible to sustain in metastable regimes for an electrical induced system, e.g. caused by gradients of electrical properties that may change more in the solid states. Latent heat of sublimation relative to the evaporation enthalpies is a factor of high relevance, with big differences for certain fluids, that impact both phase-change and thereby pressure/density propagation with its self-induced phase-change either continuous or discontinuous as a recoil due to rapid drops of saturation temperature.

Lorentz-force induced systems, either magnetically or electromagnetically, with the respectively demands for electric field oscillation, may solve many instabilities for special fluid utilizations, but existing empirical data is limited with regards to the complexity of thermal engineering it involves. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is hereby a field of relevance whereof the liquid phase is the deterministic element of induced effects, and has been evaluated as a supplementary transfer of knowledge whereby the empirical data can apply to different circumstances.

Subcooling and superheat enthalpy balance with regards to saturation pressure and boiling point is very decisive where excess surface energy changes into kinetic energy, not undisrupted by Hamaker constants. Latent heat energy that separates boiling from saturation has shown high significance in order to avoid impurities and non-condensable particles to entry the confinement due to the saturated state of gas phase and its associated properties.

Electric-field enhanced boiling and condensation, also within their respectively sequences, is important for finding waveforms to correspond with metastability in near-zero heat propagation region, with the subsequent drop and rise in surface tension and intermolecular binding. Subsequently, the vapor pressure and saturation pressure that changes correspondingly also interfere with nearby metastable domains in which the local spinodal points have small fluctuations. The waveform control and its geometries show hereby high importance, where certain geometries on the patterns are applicable to reinforce stabilization of the high mass transfer state at determined frequencies.

Phase-change interfaces in general requires stable films with uniform coalescence, which makes demands for surface tension and intermolecular binding to be consistent and coexisting with the intermediate disappearance. The electrostatic enhancements under certain passivity cycles are found to reinforce surface tension sufficiently for more fluids to become applicable, as far as the electrolytic conductivity withstands its stability over the periodical abrupt temperature gradients and in contact with phase change.

Oscillated electrostatic phase separation, with regards to the respective evaporation/condensation Van der Waals binding affection, represent much essence in how the latent heat energy propagates between phase change. Thermocapillary convection and Marangoni effect, and its velocity, make up demands for frequency, waveform and amplitude to be consistent, both at high and low Marangoni-numbers. Subjects of surface engineering has required important attention in the confinement encapsulation. Free surface energy and hydrophilic-/hydrophobicity may reinforce desired characteristics and intramolecular binding to surface for different fluid types, increasing film uniformity and stabilization. However, these may have less or virtually no importance for other fluid types that will stand out as the preferred properties by many circumstances.

Generally, electric field-based control on boiling/condensation provide distinct options to reinforce and balance desired phase change regimes, although the phenomenon itself isn’t a sufficiently base for evaporative reflection of heat to mass flux at all. The electric skin effect and the temperature-dependency on electric skin depth provides both challenges and opportunities in enhancing metastability, whereof the frequency in gigahertz region has shown to correspond with both skin-depth to film-thickness and the required binding disruption beside intermediate charge displacements. Hereby, electrical properties of supercritical peaks with rapid drops of dielectric constants, enable MPCI to carry nano-amperage currents to the interface if voltage is coinciding with the temperature-gradient of electrical resistance. Conversely, for a subcritical peak, skin effect may block the current from sufficiently propagation, thus leading to a more shallow termination with completely different properties for the metastable domain.

A confinement designed in accordance with Norwegian TEK17 standard for walls, roof and floor, affiliated to data-steered regulation of isobaric pump and programmable power supply for synchronizing with the existing U-values is done together with an internal feasibility study.

Thermal bridges in the existing structure make up requirements for thermal conductivity to ensure surface temperature uniformity, where the film is sensitive to small deviation that may disturb both thermal and electrical gradients of properties. Aluminium and stainless-steel confinements are two options with importance in the development. Thermal conductivity for high uniformity on surface temperature is sufficient for them both, while the volumetric heat capacities and subcooling enthalpies show different characteristics on subcooling states to maintain a stable barrier with the equilibrium evaporation rates. Theorizing the reliance of subcooling enthalpies in correlation with film thickness, uniformity and liquid purity provides more insight in coinciding with the ideal gas law requirements for sustaining interfacial thermal diffusivity/resistance as a corresponding reliability to the applied electric field.

By different degrees, both at high and low Marangoni numbers, show the thermocapillarity to have a significant role in determining the fluid property requirements, as surface tension directly interfere with interfacial states at the respective thermally and electrically induced disturbances and stabilization. Waveforms with overshoot and non-uniform amplitude may experience no or small importance at certain frequencies, while fluids requiring lower or higher frequencies may suffer vast propagation on accompanying disturbance. This theory has brought along plenty physical laws that impact both the phase change directly but most importantly relative to the applied voltage’s rise and fall time. Rise and fall time in this correlation may impact respectively at different degree in vicinity of waveform crests and troughs. Hereof, binodal/spinodal points may undergo abrupt fluctuations that interfere with nearby metastable domains.

Although single-applied electric fields are the preferred simplicity of the barrier system, a multi-applied electric field may increase performance in certain circumstances. Thereby, a separated solid and solid/liquid electric field is studied, whereof only the voltage in the latter one is high enough to entry the liquid. Hence, different waveform patterns can interact and disturb molecular behaviour in many new ways, where the solid impacts on electric field are isolated in terms of non-disturbance from the high-voltage amplitudes. Different semiconductor paints with non-ohmic resistivity were added to parts of the theoretical research, whereof the property of non-ohmic curvature may apply both directions with different degree, to further increase the control on the electric field by applying voltages that has a higher molecular disturbance on certain layers than others.

Singularity of applied overshoots at certain frequencies, as an overshoot in the kilohertz region applied to a low megahertz or sub-gigahertz current are theoretically analysed in order to make metastability withstand also for fluid types where thermal velocity makes it hard to form metastable states. Data-steered moderation on special waveform geometries is hence an alternative of interest, where digitally programmable supplies are crucial for making it interactively with isobaric pumps and disjoining pressures.

Frequency of thermocapillarity rectifications is in general a thermal process that is both controllable and stabilizable electromagnetically, with an applied electric field and its pulsating waveform, but also in accordance with Lorentz force of magnetic flux. As the electromagnetics precisely fluctuates a disjoining vapor pressure in the region of nano- to picopascal at a highly concentrated locus, Gibbs free energy and single particle motions can be determined with particular exceptions from the ideal gas law. In spinodal decomposition, mother/daughter phase of spinodal transition may undergo crucial influence of the ambient metastability. At the locus, although its concentration, the spinodal decomposition is important for determining thermodynamics and overall heat transfer within certain regimes.

Coexistence, both of phase changes and its boiling/saturation pressure of mother/daughter phase transition within individual domains, beside liquid and vapor spinodal respectively, plays significant roles for determining overall propagation of heat. Metastable domains in vicinity of an intermediate superspinodal region, as for a vapor where the superheat enthalpy exceeds the liquid spinodal extensively, may impact as well, with the fluctuating dynamics of different characteristics and metastable domains. Hence, the ability of spinodal daughter phase to change locus metastability, non-coinciding equilibrium pressures is maintained over long gaps as far as the spinodal point is kept stable. The liquid and vapor spinodal have hereof a respectively importance in determining its coincidence with other phase change parameters. Latent heat energy, not unusually hundred times greater than each degree of superheat, is certainly the main determination factor of where the propagation of heat is moving. Exchange of latent heat between the domains, with presence of both metastable domains and spinodal decomposition, can thereby change properties of an otherwise effective heat exchange interface by the accompanying fluctuations.

Fields of utilization assessments:

Fields of physics:

01/22/18 Collimation of laser beam sources with high energy density for filamentary propagation over long-gap gaseous- and atmospheric-media plasma channels, based on QEO, has engaged a deeper research in this field with a resulted  electro-optical collimator system, and in its combined set-up named Laser-induced Plasma Filamentation (LIPF)

Although laser-induced plasma channels have been successfully in research over past decades by heavily pulsed beam sources, a collimated initiation of the filamentary regime with constant wave environments haven’t been technologically possible. Quadratic-Electro-Optic (QEO) effect, also known as the Kerr-effect, has been atmospherically verified by femtosecond beam sources, as a result of self-focusing induced by the short pulse duration, where longer pulse durations and constant wave initiations are limited by intensity weakness. The QEO induced by electric fields in plasma filaments, acts as atmospheric waveguide and can propagate as long as the filamentation maintains. For pulsed filamentations, length range is hereby limited equivalent as the pulse duration, which is one of the main parameters that determine its propagation length. Within these non-diffraction environments, refractive index may stabilize continuously for a constant wave initiation if the collimation interact. The LIPF, a collimator system built on static convexity with an electrical inductive concavity accommodation opens possibilities for collimation of terrawatt-intensities without pulsed beam source, leading to a uniform filamentary propagation with high degree ionization over low-density kilometre-gaps.

As a stabilized plasma filamentation contacts or penetrates a voltage drop zone, current flow through with a near-zero ohmic resistance due to the electrical properties of ionized gas, where the conductivity increases with the resulted ohmic heating and ionization growth, making up a self-reinforcing electrical conductance.

A wide utilization of the LIPF-development is included in the assessment, as a possible entry of several industries like ionospheric discharge, including electricity harvesting and power production, further ultra-thin evaporative and sublimation cutting with associated efficiency, beside laser-assisted hard-rock drilling and tunnelling with deep cracks for multiplied mechanical performance.

Filamentary regimes over different energy densities, from sub-megawatt to above terawatt intensities has been theoretically studied. Freedom in collimation, where a theoretical petawatt intensity may be reachable also lead into the scope of collapsing filamentations and the critical points for different wavelengths. This emphasize the importance of balanced energy density in a controllable terawatt intensity for stable filamentary regimes, not only propagating through kilometres of falling pressure with regards to altitude, but also maintaining stable discharges over long durations. Collimated initiation of filamentary ionization and its impact on contacting equipment has been a decisive challenge to solve. How the electrified beam can be securely discharged in front of the collimator also impacts the engineering requirements. Several solutions and barriers are evaluated, although the easiest single-barrier option may show the highest degree of both security and efficiency.

For certain instances and Gaussian beam profile, characteristics of internal filamentation may form within the collimator system itself, which increase the requirements of optical separation between components. Materials of high reflectivity properties beside coating enhancements are not the main essence in this system, but certainly supplementary effects that reduce the thermal load on components. Multiplying the distribution rate with reflectivity and optical properties is decisive for great intensity enhancements, as well as balance in the system for securing filamentation to withstand continuous. Filamentation based on ultraviolet and low infrared region is both applicable for LIPF with the different characteristics. Fiberlaser is certainly a favour option for high power segments, and where the LIFI may accommodate most easily with existing optical systems.

IONOSPHERIC DISCHARGE, although its easy principles, existing technologies are far from connecting the potential difference with ground. Voltages spanning up to a megavolt relative to ground in certain peaks, makes the potential greatly dischargeable at a microscopic plasma filamentary connection. However, stabilizing the discharge in a constant wave filamentation is certainly decisive, also for ground equipment to function with the transformation requirements.

High current density within the ionospheric layers enable wide voltage drop zones through a kilometre-penetration of the layers respectively.

The ionospheric D-layer, starting within the mesosphere at altitude of 60-90 kilometres, with nitride oxygen ionized by radiation at a wavelength of 121.6 nanometres, is applicable for wide voltage drop zones with maintained refractive index, undisturbed of the ambient environment. Also the ionospheric E-layer, starting in the lower thermosphere at the altitude of 90-150 kilometres with ionization of molecular oxygen due to soft X-ray and far ultraviolet radiation, is highly penetrable by a CW laser-induced filamentary propagation. Due to low gas density, the ionospheric F-layer with ionization of atomic oxygen by extreme ultraviolet, may conversely undergo difficulties to interact with the lower filamentation with regards to large span of density difference. However, its large electron density make up great potentials for wide voltage drop zones, that can utilize electricity also from the lower F-layer if sufficiently propagation is maintained.

The ionospheric electricity potential, with its reliability and continuity through days and weeks, is considered to be several magnitudes of order larger than the current overall global electricity production.

The demand for security zones around the filamentation launch for aviation traffic is considered important, but feasible. Interaction between surveillance and circuit breaker systems are among several investigated solutions and possibilities.

EVAPORATIVE METAL CUTTING, beside sublimation cutting, has commonly been an option in the shadow of laser fusion cutting due to high latent heat of vaporization for many common metals. Limitations in energy density makes the kerf width of evaporative cutting hard to narrow above fusion cutting, which means latent heat energy conventionally surpass the savings. Fusion cutting and its melt remnant due to slow dissipation factor, makes on the other hand significant heat propagation into the processing materials, and energy losses just slightly better than conventional evaporative cutting by certain circumstances. With the LIPF filamentary diameter, evaporative cutting can be obtainable at a multiplied energy balance, where vaporized volume amounts to a fraction of fusion cutting, thus making the latent heat energy having small importance in the sum of the energy consumption. By the near-elimination of heat propagation during the cutting as a result of instant phase change, a scenario where a laser source of one kilowatt may compete and outperform a ten-kilowatt laser source or larger for an evaporative filamentation cutting, is not unrealistic due to internal feasibility studies, where kerf widths are in the range of twenty to forty times narrowed than that of conventional fusion cutting.

ROCK AND CONCRETE CUTTING, despite attempts from the established fiberlaser manufacturers, haven’t been economically above traditional cutting tools due to low energy density and thereby large power requirement for the laser source. Laser cutting of hard-rock and concrete requires evaporative or sublimable intensity, where the boiling point is high and the latent heat of vaporization increases the intensity requirements additionally. However, the main problematics lays in thickness and depth, which for a concrete wall and hard-rock block usually amounts to several times of the common thickness within metal processing. Gaussian beam profiles are hence unable to sufficiently penetrate the objects, beside the requirements for a uniformity through the kerf which is conventionally hard to obtain. Conversely, for a LIPF-collimated beam, thickness limitations disappears, and the uniformity can be maintained through long gaps. High energy density hereby enable a smaller portable laser source to cut and process hard-rock and concrete with a multiplied cutting speed compared to traditional tools due to the energy density that instantly vaporize through all kind of materials virtually unlimited of boiling point and latent heat. However, safety, as the filamentation must be terminated to not harm underlying surroundings, is a main challenge that requires engineering to meet specific application demands. Different types of solutions are evaluated, also adjustable propagation gaps and its reliability for different wavelengths and amplitudes to terminate the filamentation and determined propagation distances.

LASER-ASSISTED DRILLING, a development for hard-rock drilling which are shown to increase mechanical performance by multiple times by the existing developers, is a field of interest for the LIPF collimation, where the induced increase of crack deepness may determine a further multiplied drilling speed and efficiency. Due to a fair bulkiness of the collimator unit, thin bore drilling is an excluded option, but for medium and larger diameters the collimation can conversely become more sufficiently implemented as a part of the termination. With high energy density in stable filamentary propagation, crack deepness potential increases several times, beside the efficiency that enhance exploitation of the same source and optical cable to provide a higher density of cracks. These may multiply mechanical performance and drilling speed beyond the existing enhancements and thereby outperforming conventional drilling equipment also from medium-hardness rock formations, which includes more of the common drilling segments to the industrial potential. Tunnelling and other infrastructural drilling segments may also entry the interest for assessment of these enhancements according to feasibility studies.

LASER WELDING, especially deep-penetration welding with its energy density requirements, has added interest of feasibility studies to the LIPF research. As the filamentation is far too thin to interact with the existing set-ups for deep-penetration welding, brand new set-ups must be applied to make such welding operationally reliable. Narrow separation requirements may add difficulty to the surface uniformity demands, which is certainly too rough for many industries. Hereby, an oscillating termination is investigated, where a micrometre waveform pattern can provide welding reliability through larger deepness range. With regards to the welding utilization, a galvo-assisted termination of the filamentation may extend the exploitation potential significantly, whereof the galvo-steering can interact with robotics and machines. Different set-ups are hence illustratively investigated to theorize the interaction with filamentation and vibrational strength of collimator unit in correlation with abrupt motions.

Fields of utilization assessments:

Fields of physics:

05/15/17  Non-discontinuous wall cavitation in pipeline infrastructure, undergoing pulsed-DC amplitude overshoots, a triangle waveform retardation where thermocapillarity under control of the pulsating electric field, stabilizes frequencies  for complete cavitation regime deformability with induced balance at submillimetre thickness for frictional cancellation over long gap intervals, led to the high-speed infrastructure R&D for liquid transportation pipelines, Electro-Convective Pseudocritical Cavitation (ECPC)

By enabling cold state ECPC with constant power supply, it opens for a lot more exploitations than conventional, although high pressure environments are a common obstacle for applications in this field of technologies. High pressure environments, as deep geothermal vastly limits friction cuts due to the resulted gas phase density, while low pressure environments enable reduced frictional coefficients by ten to thirty times with the removal of direct liquid/solid contact, and even more for a sub-atmospheric pressure environment.

The research process of ECPC has involved analysis and diagram modelling of electric skin effect and skin depth in correlation with sub-spinodal and superspinodal circumstances, mainly based on AC microwave frequency with the theoretical transformation to short pulse DC at corresponding waveforms. Enhancements of amplitude and waveform profiles is added to different models for further improvements of reducing supercritical peak charges for highly electrolytic conductive fluids as water in the medium to high salinity region. Overheating protection has been evaluated with the pseudocritical profile over wide diversity of discharge intensities and pressure propagation velocimetry, where latent heat exchange may rise over the adiabatic expansion index. Near subcritical to far supercritical region is an emphasized importance of the phase diagram modelling.  Intermolecular binding and surface tension have shown importance for the surrounding incompressibility in order to make pressure propagate in corresponding profile directions. The adiabatic index of certain fluids may challenge the standard profile as a rarely exception, where the equilibrium state may drop more rapidly and inducing implosive side effects. Hereby, different parameters, both electrically and thermally, has accounted for high significance in the research.

The thermodynamics of superheat- and subcooling enthalpies lead into phase diagram modelling of its temperature dependence, thus finding balances over a wider range of subcooled regimes with accommodating superheat enthalpies. Diffusion rate constants and net mass movement in highly thermocapillary regions of interfaces is a big interest for further optimizing mass transfer coefficients with reduced imbalance of evaporative-/condensation rate, where synchronized voltage/amperage entry the modelling in the way its inductively induced surface tension impacts the metastable state of these direct contact interfaces. Superspinodal temperatures, then relative to the liquid phase spinodal curvature, is a very decisive determination factor in which the cavitation rise profiles are interfered by metastable domains in correlation with low skin depth and gradients of charge displacements.

With the electrified contact peaks, re-immersion frequency and pulse width determines its requirements for thermal erosion and corrosion resistance. Due to low voltage drop requirements for eliminating solid glow, graphite is excluded from the research, and main focus has been on corrosion resistant metals at elevated temperature surrounding by alumina or aluminium nitride insulator. Platinized titanium, niobium, tantalum and zirconium is the main options in this consideration, where low thermal expansion coefficient is important for minimized elasticity requirements to surrounding insulators. Rapid heat dissipation and volumetric heat capacity determines whether its thermal tolerance is sufficient, where latent heat of fusion and vaporization may favour a few of them. The platinum coat thickness is evaluated for high durability on the components, sustaining lifetime expectations in the above ten-years region. Further improvements by adding iridium to sensitive regions are also included, whereof its mechanical strength and electrical conductivity show superiority above platinized titanium.

Convective heat transfer relative to propagation of gas phase density gradients, add a few more theories to parts of the mass balance analysis, where condensable states in evaporative zones must be considered to influence the overall energy separation. Dynamical gradients of thermal and electrical resistivity and conductivity with regards to propagation of pressure in supercritical take-off peaks, falling over the subcritical, superheated, saturation temperature and subcooling state and the attending variations of properties, makes related indexes and coefficients highly decisive in determining overall efficiency, whereof adiabatic indexes in correlation with velocimetry are among the highlighted. Abrupt falling through the metastable zone into the subcooled state where binodal temperature is no longer exceeded, may lead to rarely phenomenon with regards to phase change.

Ultrasonic-assisted phase separation followed by electric discharges, DC and AC with power factor correction, were excluded from the investigation due to arcing erosion and inductance problematics by direct gasification discharge and implosive pressure states. However, the ultrasonic enhancement of phase separation has led to defining more characteristics and parameters like saturation states due to the available empirical test data. Hereof, an abrupt rise from binodal to spinodal point with change in metastable domains can be studied as potential scenarios also without the ultrasonic assistance.

Lorentz-force charge displacements in electrolytic fluids are an assessment of impacts relative to propagation of supercritical pressure profile with its determination of electrical conductivity gradient and how current will flow. Further, the increase of electrical conductivity in concentrated zones and hence current density also rise a higher degree on Lorentz force, where the magnetic flux results in a self-reinforcing concentration of discharge. Hereof, density and curvature on the magnetic flux has high importance for determining overall coefficients. Skin depth moderation, where magnetic flux is opposing the skin effect to concentrate and rather penetrate an electrolytic fluid at high frequency is considered for certain degrees of salinity in water supply. Frequency and waveform in this confinement are highly applicable to the propagation of cavity rise profiles and its anti-arc pulsating effect as well as balancing it with non-implosive recoils and high re-immersion frequencies. Different geometries on cavitator protrusion further add parameters for balance improvements.

Certain noble gases with its cold plasma shielding capabilities is added to some of the research theories. In sustaining the gas shielding separated from plasma flow, different frequencies and amplitudes are investigated to make comply with magnetic flux and density diffusivity coefficients that determine compressibility in controlling them within a non-mixture or minimal-mixture convection. Diffusion rate constants and net mass movement are hence taken into account for finding propagation profiles and overall mass transfer coefficients. Interfacial particle vibration and librations in special characteristics with influence on the respective liquid thermocapillarity and gas phase convection has added further interest to parts of the schematic models. The way kinetic energy induce net mass movement and diffusion constants can be sufficiently impacted with this influence if synchronization is made consistently enough. Both microwave and far infrared show theoretical potentials to correspond with Freznel reflection indexes for certain fluid types, where a not too long gap between intervals may enhance convective deformation.

Deformability and compressibility rates by temperature dependency applies to both kinetic energy propagation and net mass movement over different rise and drop profiles, where the slow deformation may delay a further collapse or partial cavity transition. Marangoni-number influencing surface tension reinforcement is very complex in the pseudocritical region due to limited empirical test data. In this way it confirms the importance of theory in order to confine further deviations. By the incompressibility, that vastly strengthens the pressure concentration, the pseudocritical line allows a far higher specific heat to form and thereby a temperature which corresponds to overheating and dry-out rates for low subcooling zones. Hereby, several parameters are added to increase the reliability.

Electrolysis reactions with the influence of plasma/liquid interface is a consideration that is accounted for in different deviation theories. As an applied AC electrification with the electrolysis mixture of hydrogen/oxygen combusts instantly in the contact line of high temperature ionization, this may add new parameters to the pressure propagation whereof the adiabatic expansion indexes of the steam product are clarifying much of the gradient deviations. The plasma in this circumstance may peak up to several magnitudes of order higher than the adiabatic flame temperature, whereof the combustion and adiabatic indexes must be similarly accounted for independently of its highly concentrated location. The steam product of such direct combustions makes up requirements for high purity in order to reduce the non-condensable particles interference on following thermodynamics.

With the gradients of temperature across liquid and gas phase, and the temperature-dependency of electrical properties in liquid phase, binodal and spinodal curves requires high accuracy to make reliable gradients and cavitation profile scenarios in which metastability interfere with many decisive parameters. Small fluctuations may determine whether the pressure is sufficiently for the gas phase temperature to be above liquid spinodal temperature or not, with the accompanying metastability characteristics and interference of spinodal decomposition. For the latter one, vapor superheat enthalpy is in general needed to exceed the liquid spinodal extensively as far as the pressure propagation is consistent. However, pressure propagation with the influence of high mass transfer coefficients, whereof metastable domains may collapse abruptly, is not uncommonly discontinuous for many circumstances and especially aggressive cavitation profiles. Hereby, balances and phase diagram modelling of the different dynamics and gradients are not less important to increase reliability with manageable deviations to sustain high performance independently of speed, pressure, density, temperatures and the associated thermal and electrical properties.

HYDROPOWER, with the established infrastructure, is not a certain utilization area for the ECPC and represents many limitations in the feasibility studies. Low pressure drops within existing infrastructure due to diameter and low flow speed makes it complex to interact with a high-speed infrastructure, despite the economics of thin diameter piping. Proposed gathering of nearby water capacities to supply a main capacity, where current construction extent as drilling is too comprehensive, has been evaluated as a possible scenario. Complete new fields of infrastructure where the high speed is exploited also by power conversion is certainly a more desirable option, but challenged by the fact that most areas already have a low speed infrastructure.

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY, and the associated deepness, is commonly not sufficiently compatible for high friction cut. Density, even peaking up to a supercritical phase in deepest locations and more commonly subcritical, makes drag coefficients imbalanced over the system and is far too high in the peak zones, thereby not reaching sufficiently performance. Alternative feasibility assessments as shallow geothermal plants may benefit ECPC in the instance of newbuild infrastructure where thin diameter drilling cost is taken into account for the balance. Certain fluids with corresponding properties allow further enhancement of the performance and thereby allowing geothermal to be a competitive power production alternative for certain areas where the non-renewable is dominating today, but certainly not a main utilization for ECPC with the diversity of utilization areas.

PROPULSION SYSTEMS, especially maritime vessels in the small to medium scale, where current positions in the stern region of the hulls are negatively impacting surrounding friction and hereby reduced propulsion efficiency with a limited intake flow, an ECPC line through the vessel may enhance propulsion efficiency by several percent in addition to the elimination the related drag increase. In contrast to the currently unavoidable drag increase, an ECPC line with bow intake may reduce base drag and wave-making resistance significantly by exploiting the water masses in front of the vessel, thereby reducing the overall drag as a supplementary performance increase on top of the increased propulsion efficiency.

Maritime vessels, from small to medium scale, including partly hydroplaning vessels, may gain ten to thirty percent in fuel efficiency with the ECPC line through the vessel, according to simulated estimations. However, the retrofitting difficulties associated with existing structures make up requirements for involving newbuilding operators in the development of ECPC-compatible vessels. Hereby, a bow designed for bow intake that both reduce wave-making resistance significantly and provides a directional high flow of intake water to the propulsion, may reduce drag and increase propulsion efficiency to an overall 30-40 % improvement of fuel efficiency.

WATER SUPPLY, where high speed can be maintained over long distances, horizontally or with sub-twenty-metre altitude, is a very applicable utilization area for the cold state ECPC. Thin diameter requirements make infrastructural benefits that can determine economic feasibility, and at a sub-atmospheric-pressure induced by termination pumps that further enhance the possibilities, the speed can make up for a fifty to hundred times less cross-sectional area. Such high-speed infrastructure water supply may thus transport cubic-meters per second in a very compact pipeline system, whereof the associated digging costs and construction extent may be equivalently reduceable. Among the assessed exploitations, a high-speed infrastructure pipeline may be able to economically supply regions and countries that suffers water shortage, as a more environmentally friendly option to the current desalination plants. Different scenarios are hence added to feasibility studies to evaluate altitude and pressure demands.

Fields of utilization assessments:

Fields of physics:

04/15/13 Speed-induced frictional cancellation with hydrodynamic drag coefficients and resistance components as main attention, beside wave-independency in maritime operation and its induced drag cuts, as well as other ship-hull technology, gradually formed the technology combination of a Stabilized Supercavitating SWATH

The combination of SWATH (small-waterplane-area-twin-hull) and supercavitation has been researched by various institutions and other operators in the maritime sector with the intention of forming a very low resistance. However, the combination of the fully immersed hulls, cruising in a frictional cancelling cavity, has been hard to stabilize, both hydrodynamically and with regards to cavity profiles and its propagation.

In general, supercavitation requires speeds several magnitudes of order higher than conventional maritime operation speeds. With its origin from Soviet Union torpedo technology, a missile to ship hull transformation has shown difficulties, especially from rough sea impacts and wave-induced instabilities and propagation of pressure gradients.

The rotating helical cavitator hull with tangential velocity parameters, providing superficial pressure control for stabilized cavity propagation and steering opportunities for inducing speed-converging cavity profiles beside the accompanying gyroscopic properties and radial-lift-induced stabilization, is a new base for combining SWATH with supercavitation regimes and seaworthiness. An accumulator-supported submergible mid-hull secures the stability to be hydrostatically superior in addition, with control on draught liftable to less than half of the operationally. The high-speed design can thus entry shallow ports despite being on an ultra-capacity ship scale.

Minimalistic waterplane area has its benefits in reducing wave-making resistance and deflecting increase/decrease of buoyancy from the waves it moves through. However, stability has then to be maintained from other sources than the excess of buoyancy, which is not a stable stability source when the weather becomes rough.

Gyroscopic momentum as part of entire structures secures high degree directionality, whereof the hulls operating beneath the water surface with wave heights up to several metres, can carry the above platform constantly horizontally without the influence of rough sea and wind loads. Inversed rotation direction on the helical cavitator hull structures with radial pressures along the surfaces contributes to uniform source of stability, both hydrodynamically and with regards to the cavity propagation. Gradients of tangential velocities plays hereby an important role in determining hydrodynamics in which the axial parameters may undergo high interference of its induced forces and change of characteristics.

On a general basis, the SWATH design is known for seaworthiness and very low wave-making resistance due to small waterplane area. With the enhancements of stabilization, the waterplane area is proposed further reduced, allowing high supercavitating speeds without the associated escalation of wave-making resistance. This is a decisive benefit above similar concepts where reduced supercavitating speeds have had to make up for the increase of wave-making, thus not obtaining the same degree of frictional cancellation.

In the 40 to 60 knots region, supercavitation may have significant limitations with regards to stability and propagation distances. The simulated 80-knots region in highly stabilized environments may hereby reduce the overall drag coefficients more than speed increase, despite a square-frictional growth is the usual one for a turbulent boundary layer in direct contact liquid/solid.

CFD simulations on a range of cavity profiles have been done in order to analyse how it interact with rotation speed, geometrical cross sections, pitch, tangential velocities and cavitator intervals. Separation distance, immersion depth and other design factors have played significant roles beside the essential. Different CFD software are used respectively to study their compliance.

Cross-section designs made up by a star-shaped geometry is certainly decisive as the helical cavitator hull requires non curvature corresponding to the rotational axis. However, the design is analysed by different star-shapes from three to ten grooves, with different curvature, both concavity and convexity. Hydrodynamics have shown its highest performance by five grooves within preferred speed range and other parameters, while the structural benefits of a non-curvature design has been hydrodynamically sufficient.

Convexity and concavity on helical surfaces in correlation with different tangential velocities is of course a field that enable many opportunities and variables of supercavitation characteristics, despite its straight lines are preferred for construction. This represents a great optimization potential for the technology to further remove the small remnants of frictional resistance. A near-zero drag coefficient can hence provide speed ranges not far from the Soviet ekranoplan, Caspian Sea Monster, but with far more loading capacity, fuel range and many other benefits.

Tangential velocities on helical cavitator hulls have in general high significance for supercavitation to stay consistently stabilized. Its dynamics and gradients along the radius and how it impacts local pressures and gas phase densities certainly represents much determination relevance in overall coefficients. Hereby, small adjustments and fluctuations in rotation speeds as well as pitch and depths on the helical cross section design, can determine whether the overall coefficients are negative or positive with respect to the ideal potential. Different tangential velocities with tight intervals are hence simulated in order to find the optimal points where frictional resistance falls at the highest degree.

In the simulations, frictional resistance is shown to fall abruptly in the vicinity of the optimal points for tangential velocity. Hence, frictional cancellation can be maintained very consistently if the tangential velocity is precisely controlled by the supported RPM. Thereby, engines to support the high precision on helical RPM is taken into consideration with different locations and power transmission solutions. The engines can be located internally within the cavitator hulls, but also in the platform for better access to maintenance. The torque is considered to be very small with regards to overall machinery and propulsion demand, whereof the power can be generated by auxiliary electric engines and electric generators.

The patent application of the Stabilized Supercavitating SWATH were approved by 2015, followed by PCT-application in 2016. Many old patents of helical propulsion designs are found through the patent processes, despite no correlation with SWATH, supercavitation or drag cut intentions. These star-shaped cross section show hereby superiority above old patents in order to reduce frictional coefficients, which is a completely different intention than generating propulsion, that also make up very different requirements for pitch and other design factors.

As the speed positively impacts transport logistics, with the fuel savings as a further side effect, the ship-hull technology is not limited to specific market segments, but is utilizable for various shipping industries as the container shipping, general cargo, bulk, crude oil and chemical tankers, LNG, Ro-Ro as well as cruise and passenger shipping.

The global container shipping, an industry that partly compete with air transport on a few segments of the cargo, is very applicable in high-speed market segment, despite changing the established logistics are time-demanding processes. Shown by several intuitional reports, air transport emits more than a hundred times more carbon dioxide relative to transportation weight, compared to global container shipping. Compensating the air transport with shipping is thus nearly a pure net saving in emissions equal to the reduction of air transport. Speed increase on the general container shipping further reduce the reefer operation time, which is a big energy consumer in the container industry, where quicker delivering of food and commodities to the market consumers may have other benefits additionally.

Cruise shipping, and passenger transportation, may benefit high speed travel in certain segments of the market. Arctic and Antarctic travel, as well as oversea travel, both transatlantic and trans-Pacific, in less than a third of the time may attract much traffic. Cruising from the Mediterranean to the Caribbean in 2-3 days for a longer stay at the destinations is one applicable segment, beside route traffic from high-populated areas as London to New York in 48 hours is a competitive option to air travelling as the fuel efficiency is ten to hundred times greater, dependent on scale.

Beside the hydrodynamics and comfort caused by the wave independency of SWATH, this also accompany great structural benefits, especially in the large-scale segment. Where mono-hulls have to withstand structural bending forces of several megaton/meters due to drop of buoyancy from wave crest to wave crest, which mean it must act like a bridge over the trough of the waves that may amount to more than hundred kilocubic-meters of lost buoyancy, the SWATH is completely independent of this issue. As a platform carried on two submarine hulls, the structure has a more constant stress, not impacted by twisting, slamming and dynamical bending forces. Hence, the platform-on-pontoon principle is in general much more economically to produce, despite some other design factors with the rotational hull features.

As the platform-on-pontoon principle has a structural benefit above classical mono-hull in which it reduces bending stress and thereby steel volume demands, future prospects should make it very attractive to modernized industry. In an upcoming more robotics dominated yard industry, where the steel costs constitute increasingly more than technological and design features, this may outperform traditional mono-hull design by reducing steel consumption significantly. However, the engineering extent must be added as a decisive part of the overall production process, which would prefer a future more AI dominated engineering to deal with many of the technological features without too large impacts of the overall extent.

Fields of utilization assessments:

Fields of physics:

 
 

APPLIED PHYSICS - SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  • Resistance components, drag coefficients, Froude scaling and Reynolds number in correlation with various thermal & electrical phenomena

  • Induced cuts of wave-making resistance by near zero or small waterplane-area vessels like SWATH

  • Frictional resistance and cancellation, turbulent boundary layers, insulated

  • Supercavitation and microbubbler technologies in contrast to gas cavities and partial cavities

  • Cavitator technologies, static, ventilated, ultrasonic, irradiated and electrical

  • Hydrophobic and ultrahydrophobic impacts in cavity stabilization

  • Hydrophilic and superhydrophilic stabilization capabilities in film barriers

  • Free surface energy externally oscillated by an applied electrification of magnetism, where movement of kinetic energy is pulse-based controlled for inducing desired frequencies

  • Propulsion systems, flow, intake, RPM, efficiency, impacts on stern drag and frictional coefficient

  • Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), electromagnetically and Lorentz-force control

  • Flow patterns by moderated surface tension in thermo-capillarity, metastable interfaces, electro-convective phase-change

  • Surface tension dominance in hydrodynamics on nano-/micro- and mesoscale, and its capabilities to change by electro-thermal disruption

  • Scale effects of convective affection of gaseous propagation in liquid encased surface tension

  • Pseudocritical peaks surrounded by incompressibility and its propagation of adiabatic expansion in interaction with flow and velocity

  • Marangoni number dominance in surface tension and reinforced or disrupted intermolecular binding by different electro-thermal sources

  • Metastable Leidenfrost states from subcritical to saturation temperatures

  • Sublimable and vaporizable interfaces and its convective impacts on cavity deformation characteristics

  • Savounius turbine with the impact of ionic wind induced by filamentation

  • Gyroscopic momentum stabilization within aero- and hydrodynamics

  • Internal boundary curves and velocimetry of cavity with convective and non-convective intervention

  • Ultrasonic-enhanced phase separation and cavity rise followed by instant electrification or other energy supply

  • Re-immersion frequency in correlation with pulsating power supply and pseudocritical feeding of nearby compressible medium

  • Ionic propulsion with the exploitation of LIFI and collimated filamentary initiation

  • Filamentary ionization and wireless energy transmission for enhancing aerodynamic performance

  • Steady state and transient heat transfer in correlation with gradients of volumetric heat capacities and heat dissipation factors

  • Thermal expansion coefficients in solid/liquid interfaces with the intervention of surrounding elasticity requirements

  • Multilayer gradients of thermal conductivity with the induced drop and rise of heat dissipation factors

  • Phase-change interfaces analysis of latent heat of melting/fusion and vaporization between triple point pressure and critical point pressure

  • Sub-triple point pressure containments with sublimation enthalpies and metastable decomposition

  • Volumetric heat capacity in correlation with pulsating energy and temperature dependence and heat dissipation

  • Subcooling and superheat enthalpies with respective balances undergoing metastability and subcritical characteristics

  • Mass transfer coefficients and movement of kinetic energy with/without convective diffusion and thermocapillarity

  • Desuperheating heat transfer by implosive induced pressure drops peaking to sub-saturation pressures at ambient temperatures

  • Diffusion rate constants and net mass movement with the importance of adiabatic indexes within limited compressibility factors

  • Evaporation/condensation rates with/without imbalance and instability of ideal gas theory

  • Intermediate nucleate boiling and transition boiling in nano/microscale propagation of high amplitude induced skin effect

  • Direct nucleate to film boiling theory assessment by undergoing aggressive pulse rise time and unilinear or parabolic fall time

  • Pressure oscillation of critical temperature for external control on sub- to supercritical resistivity properties

  • Gradients of incompressibility factor by small-gap discharges inducing pseudocritical limitations

  • With/without desuperheating intervention of containment pressure with disjoining saturation temperature and vapor pressure

  • Gas phase densities in saturated state subcritical region impacting conductivity and dryness potentials

  • Equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in correlation with disjoining mass balances

  • Triple phase interfaces with the affection of fourth state peaks propagation and dissipation

  • Evaporative flux in vicinity of contact line with dissipative Marangoni-instability and various Marangoni numbers

  • Diffusive thermal resistance and its compliance with variable gas phase density in correlation with metastability interfaces

  • Interfacial force on evaporative mass flux combined with gradients of electrical and thermal properties

  • Lorentz force in electrolytic conductors, charge displacements and resistivity gradients

  • Voltage breakdown i.a.w. Paschen’s law, phase diagram in cavity controllable gaps and dynamical compliance

  • Electrical skin effect, skip depth by AC MHz to GHz region, DC pulse width compliance, waveform moderation impacts

  • Electrical skin effect by phase change interfaces, supercritical drops of dielectric constants, conductivity gradients

  • Inductance problematics in solid/liquid contact termination, power factor correction (PFC) requirements

  • Anti-arc pulsing with pseudocritical line compliance with waveform/amplitude

  • Voltage drops for non-ohmic conductor liquids, formed gradients of resistivity and joule heating efficiency loss

  • Superheated and subcritical liquids electrical conductivity, flow of electrolytes and temperature/conductance gradients

  • Discharge termination by adiabatic expansion peaks, compliance adiabatic index to electrical arc termination

  • Voltage/amperage synchronization with pulse width and frequency by non-ohmic environments and rapid drops of resistivity

  • Corresponding voltage drops with heat dissipation factors and thermal tolerance

  • Magnetic trapping/steering of plasma moderation current density and magnetic flux patterns

  • Maximized discharge in anti-arc pulsing by theoretical analysis of waveform geometries, mainly focused high salinity liquid H2O

  • Rectification assessment, AC and three-phase sources corresponding to waveform demands

  • Power supply by AC electrolysis for perfectum 3:1 hydrogen oxygen mixtures with direction combustion and instant drop of adiabatic flame temperature

  • Nano-amperage disruption at medium-high voltage supply within weak electrolytic conductance and temperature dependent gradients

  • Theoretical charge propagation of short pulse rise time followed by moderate fall time within high speed flow

  • Determining electrolytic conductivity in high temperature zones with theoretical flux of electrolytes in accordance with multiple triggers

  • Charge penetration by DC+ and DC- difference with its significance for thermal uniformity and subsequent convection

  • Semiconductor non-ohmic coating with different curvature and directions on the ohmic resistance in correlation with multilayer barriers

  • Special waveform on electric field-enhanced boiling-/condensation states with the influence of Lorentz force

  • Mass movement and phase change in interaction with electrified liquid state in correlation with magnetic flux

  • Convective rectification induced by magnetic flux and electrification of contacting liquid/solid phase

  • Molecular and atomic collision frequency in corresponding rates of alternating current

  • Rectified sine wave pulses and wavelength impacts on molecular and particle collisions within ideal gas assessment

  • Waveform geometries theoretical affection potential on instability and metastability characteristics in multi-phase interfaces

  • Pulse rise time and fall time interaction with reinforced surface tension and intermolecular binding for mass movement control

  • Pulse width synchronization with frequency demands for specified voltage level with following amperage demands

  • Electric field gradients relative to applied magnetism and electrolyte flow

  • Supercritical incandescence degree in correlation with specific heat enthalpy and propagation of pressure and dielectric constants

  • Electric and thermal properties of noble metals with regards to electro-thermal systems and performance

  • Theoretical evaluation of cross section area of intermediate supercritical conductors through liquid encased incompressibility

  • Half-wave and full-wave rectification as source for electric field enhanced performance of fluid mechanical systems

  • Proportional and parabolic curves on electro-convective boundaries

  • Thermal- and electrical insulation binding metal/ceramic insulator with regards to thermal tolerance and maintained electrical resistance by high amplitude peaks and discharge overshoot

  • Theoretical temperature independence of superconductor control and/or oscillation of thermal conductivity based on applied electrification without disturbance of ohmic heating

  • Mass transfer coefficients with/without electrified thermocapillarity on liquid barriers undergoing skin depth reduction

  • Charge displacement by Lorentz force in correlation with temperature gradients caused by intermediate thermal conduction

  • Influence of heat paint and distribution of electrical conductance when applied to special different technologies and barriers and in correlation with phase change interfaces

  • Quadratic Electro-optic effect by atmospheric propagation, altitude density and change of ionization characteristics

  • Concavity deviation in correlation with interactive convexity of electro-optical collimation consisting high energy density

  • Divergence/collapse and refractive index stabilization for constant wave collimated filamentation

  • Current density and filamentary ionization i.a.w. energy density and gas properties

  • Galvo-assisted filamentation with its singularity termination requirements, enhancing CNC performance of certain exploitations

  • Electromagnetic spectrum of absorption in water, frequency and wavelength span from sub-ultraviolet to microwave region

  • Plasmatron and plasma jets in control of filamentation disturbance and guidance

  • Ultrashort pulsating of non-thermal plasma (cold plasma) with intervention of magnetic flux and Lorentz force

  • Plasma-facing materials (PFM) in a high current density environment, where the resistivity determines its self-glowing temperature rise due to ohmic heating and following heat dissipation requirements

  • Direct contact plasma-conductor electrolysis with combustion expansion indexes affecting intermediate ionization density and increased overpotential

  • HHO combustion product becoming ionized in the peak of adiabatic flame temperature with resulted ionization enhancement

  • Oxidizer separation or removal for temporarily controlled hydrogen plasma with its density benefits in convective stabilization

  • Plasma intervention in electrolysis where cathodic and anodic processes are undergoing phase separation and incompressibility intervention

  • Advance flash-desalination for removed chlorine gas ionization by saltwater electrolysis in contact with arcing discharges

  • Waveguide and coaxial combination set-up line with microwave plasma source for direct flash boiling and non-corrosive electrified components

  • Magnetic mirror reinforcements on plasma and shielding gas convection

  • Heat loss due to eddy currents in plasma shielding of non-corrosive electrification contact solid/liquid

  • §Heat propagation gradients in laser deep penetration welding with regards to solid/plasma interface followed by fusion

  • Industrial microwave 915/2450 MHz energy source with waveguide and coaxial cable supply for electromagnetic absorption of liquid processing

  • CO2 laser reflector termination and PIR cable supply in mid infrared wavelength absorption inducing very superficial evaporation or sublimation

  • Gradient modeling of low pressure arcing influence on thermal erosion with noble metals and other plasma facing materials combined with highly corrosive contact lines at elevated temperature

CONCEPT DESIGN

 
 

ABOUT

INSVIVIA TECHNOLOGIES, established 2013. Applied physics and long-term R&D in thermodynamic and electromagnetic enhancements of fluid-mechanical performance and vice versa, has high industrial importance for transportation and energy sector, hereof maritime, aviation and power production as well as energy efficiency in building & construction beside infrastructural industries. The electromagnetism’s capabilities in fluid- and thermodynamics extend technological utilization of applied physics, with steam engineering, electromagnetic radiation, optics, laser industry and plasma physics as some of the important sub-disciplines. Critical issues on nano- and microscale as fluctuating and dynamical gradients of thermal and electrical properties with regards to metastability, phase-change, temperature dependency, convection and pressure propagation, compressibility rates over triple phase systems beside supercritical influence and intervention of electrical skin effect, magnetic flux, ionization and direct contact plasma/liquid/vapor/solid interfaces in its variety of orders and interfacial regimes and reactions, is some of the parameter factors that show decisive superiority in applied physics advancements. Mentioned phenomena in deformable, reactive and metastable circumstances as well as condensation, evaporative and sublimation heat and mass transfer, involves significance of factors as triple point, spinodal and binodal points, phase enthalpies and mass balance, adiabatic indexes, velocimetry, pseudocritical lines, electrical frequency, waveform and amplitude in correlation with various fluid-mechanical and molecular phenomena with the affecting chemistry, whereof related subjects from high performance materials and laser filamentation to molecular metastability and supercritical fluid properties represents important attention. Competence-span on direct and indirect interactive fields of physics enable more transfer of technology from one industry to another, encompassing many opportunities for applied physics to enhance technological utilization. Mentioned fields of physics in its variety of combinations are among our special focus.

CONTACT INFORMATION

INSVIVIA Technologies does not provide engineering service or other consultancy for external operators. All effort is mainly limited and restricted to the internal R&D within applied physics for technological developments.

Ongoing developments are embedded strict confidentiality in accordance with IPR standards, which includes no disclosure opportunities beyond published content of related science subjects.

For other questions, please contact us for further information.

INSVIVIA AS

Org.NO: 912 083 926 MVA

CEO: Ivan Nilsen

Phone: (+47) 95306009

Email: post@insvivia.no

Website: www.insvivia.com

Manshausveien 22

NO-4432 Hidrasund

Norway

INSVIVIA TECHNOLOGIES AS

Org.NO: 913 599 578

CEO: Ivan Nilsen

Phone: (+47) 95306009

Email: post@insvivia.no

Website: www.insvivia.com

Manshausveien 22

NO-4432 Hidrasund

Norway

 
 

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